Research Studies

Bentgrass and Bermudagrass:

Kevin Morris

New cultivars for putting greens A PowerPoint presentation from Kevin Morris, executive director of the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program highlighting the 1999 data resulting from the 1998 National Putting Green tests and USGA, GCSAA, NTEP bentgrass and bermudagrass onsite test data from spring of 1999.
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Ridding Poa annua from putting greens can save water, time, and money


Poa annua requires more water and needs it more frequently to survive than any species of turfgrass. A two-year field study at Oregon State University looked at how much water turfgrass species need to stay healthy and viable.
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Cultural Practices to Minimize Dollar Spot on Creeping Bentgrass

Alex Ellram, Ph.D., Brian Horgan, Ph.D. and Brent Hulke

Daily mowing at the appropriate time can significantly reduce the occurrence of dollar spot. Data from a field study and a controlled environment study look at the influence of daily mowing and leaf wetness duration effects on the occurrence of dollar spot on Penncross creeping bentgrass.
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Early Detection of Turf Disease Through Direct Sensing

Zachary Anderson, M.S. and Thomas Fermanian, Ph.D.

The human eye gets some assistance in discovering the first signs of disease in turf. This study, conducted by researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, looks at the possibility of using direct sensing equipment to detect disease before visual signs appear.
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Spoon-Feeding with Granular Materials?

M.J. Howieson, Nick Christians

M.J. Howieson and Nick Christians compare differences in turf quality with liquid and granular spoon-feeding fertilization techniques.
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North Shore Country Club NTEP trials and Poa study

Tom Voigt, University of Illinois; Dan Dinelli, CGCS, North Shore Country Club; Bruce Branham, University of Illinois; Randy Kane, Chicago District Golf Association; and Paul Vermeulen, United States Golf Association

Putting Green Turfgrass Study A summary of the results of the on-site putting green tests conducted at North Shore Country Club with additional data looking at the ability of these trials to resist poa annua invasion.
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AGCSA Variety Trials, 2003

John Neylan

Bentgrass variety trials This study, conducted by the Australian Golf Course Superintendents Association, compared various bentgrass varieties to wear tolerances, effects of effluent water and moisture stress tests. Penn A-1, Penn A-4 and Penn G-2 where the best performers in the wear tolerances trials, and Penn G-2 was the least susceptible variety to develop localized dry spots. We thank the AGCSA for permission to share this study.
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Nitrogen Management of Penn A-4

Maxim J. Schlossberg and Andrew S. McNitt

Nitrogen rates and forms for maximum quality and growth of Penn A-4 bentgrass This study explored the effects of various forms of nitrogen and rates on the quality of and growth of Penn A-4. The results showed that Penn A-4 responded best to water soluble ammonium sulfate at a rate of less than .2 lbs. N/1000 sq. ft. every two weeks. We would like to thank the Pennsylvania Turfgrass Council and the Foundation for Agronomic Research for allowing us to share this research.
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The Comparative Competitive Abbility of Thirteen Agrostis Stolonifera Cultivars to Poa Annua

J.B. Beard, P. Croce*, M. Mocioni, A. De Luca, and M. Volterrani

Poa Annua Study This study by Dr. James Beard compared the competitiveness of 13 different varieties of creeping bentgrass against poa annua. Dr. Beard discovered that Penn G-2, Penn G-6, Seaside II and Penn A-1 were the most outstanding entries in the study, with all four showing that they could crowd out poa annua. We thank Dr. Beard for sharing this study.
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Unbiased Cultivar Evaluations

NTEP Trials 1997-2001

This national study evaluated the performance of bentgrass varieties from 13 different locations across the country. Penn A-4 was judged the best overall entry during the five year study. Interestingly, in the poa annua coverage ratings section of the study, the Penn A?s and G?s were the top four performers in keeping poa annua out.
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1998-1999 NTEP National Bentgrass Putting Green Test for New Cultivars of Bentgrass


This presentation highlights the testing and results from the NTEP trials that included the new cultivars of bentgrasses. Penn A-4 was the only cultivar listed in the top statistical category for on-site bentgrasses. The complete results rank the Penn A?s and G?s as the best overall cultivars for putting green use.
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Overseeding Bentgrass Species Into Existing Stands of Poa Annua

Gerald M. Henry, Stephen E. Hart & James A. Murphy ? Rutgers University

This study from 2000 illustrates the success of overseeding pure stands of poa annua with creeping bentgrass as a means of converting the turf stand. Results show that the newer, more aggressive bentgrasses, such as Penn A-4, can establish quicker and maintain a high vigor in the presence of poa annua when overseeded in early summer.
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Cultivation and Topdressing Requirements for Thatch Management in A, G Bentgrasses and Creeping Bluegrass

John Stier & Andrew Hollman - University of Wisconsin, Madison

This study examines the management requirements for maintaining an acceptable thatch level in the soil profile. With the Penn A?s and G?s having a relatively high shoot density as compared to other bentgrasses, A-4 and G-2 were tested for thatch management techniques. Results illustrated that the Penn A?s and G?s cultivation and topdressing practices do not differ substantially from older varieties of creeping bentgrass, such as Penncross.
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Heat Stress Separates Old and New Bentgrass

Michael Toubakaris & Bert McCarty, Ph.D.

This research illustrates that the newer bentgrass, the Penn A?s and G?s, produce higher quality turf under summer heat stress than the older bentgrass varieties. However, the older varieties, particularly Penncross, recovered from summertime damage quicker than the newer varieties. A special thanks to Golf Course Management magazine for allowing us to reproduce this study from their archives.
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Ball Mark Study on Bentgrass Greens

Andrea C. Bakalyar, The Wee Course at Williams Creek

This study performed by golf course superintendent Andrea Bakalyar reviews multiple creeping bentgrass varieties, including Penncross, Pennlinks, A-1 and G-2, to determine the healing rates among the popular varieties. She concluded that no one bentgrass variety dramatically outperforms any other in the area of ball mark recovery.
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Evaluation of Turfgrass Species for Use on Putting Greens (2002)

M.A. Anderson, G. McCullough, D.L. Moroz, J.B. Ross & C.F. Miluch

These studies performed by the Prairie Turfgrass Research Centre focuses on evaluating various bentgrasses for performance under putting green maintenance conditions. Each year during the continual study, one variety is chosen as the best overall cultivar for that year. In the three most recent studies, Penn A-4 has been selected as the best variety.
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